Monday, March 31, 2014

Research Blog #6: Visual



This chart was in one of my scholarly articles, and represents the mean salaries by type of networking. The figure shows the average annual salary by type of networking used. As you may notice, college students who used their fraternity network in order to obtain a job are among the highest paid. I believe that this graph supports my argument, and i will likely use it in my oral presentation and final analytic paper.

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

Literature Review #4

Peer and Social Networks in Job Search

This article studies students at Dartmouth College, who used social networking tools in order to obtain their first job.  through the use of self-analyzing reports of networking, and examining the correlation  in employment outcomes, David Marmaros and Bruce Sacerdote conclude that there are many factors of social networking which can result in the aid of obtaining a job upon graduation. Students who have networked with fraternity and sororities members and alumni are the most likely to obtain high paying jobs.

Modern day students have stressed the importance of networking with other individuals in order to obtain a high paying job. students who have solicited help from their current aumni members of their fraternity or sorority are also the most likely to obtain high paying jobs. Through their self-analyzing survey that they sent out to 1056 seniors, 590 participated. Students were asked a series of questions which took a total of 5-10 minutes, and asked where they obtained advice and assistance in careers. of the 590 participants, 19% of people obtained help from a dartmouth alumnus outside of their fraternity or sorority, and 9% of people obtained help from an alumnus or current member of their fraternity or sorority.

Citation:
Marmaros, David, and Bruce Sacerdote. "Peer and Social Networks in Job Search."European Economic Review 46.4-5 (2002): 870-79. Print.

Authors:
David Marmaros is an Engineering Director at google, who studied at both Dartmouth college and Stanford University. He was also an integration consultant at Trilogy, and specialized in web technologies and very large distributed databases.

Bruce Sacerdote is a faculty director at Dartmouth college and enjoys working with detailed data to enhance the understanding of why children and youth turn out the way they do. He is also involved in a series of studies to examine how students make choices in college. He also teaches senior seminars dealing with finance and economics.

Key Terms:
Social network - a network of social interactions and personal relationships. 

Networking - the exchange of information or services among individuals, groups, or institutions; specifically the cultivation of productive relationships for employment or business.

Quotes: 
"Fig. 1 shows the mean salary reported conditional on the types of networking used. We see that students relying on professors for help have the lowest starting salaries, whereas those utilizing fraternity connections have the highest starting salaries." (pg. 874)

"In column 1 [Table 2], we show that students using fraternity help are 21% more likely to accept a high paying job and that this effect is statistically significant." (pg. 875)

"The effect from using fraternity help is in addition to the level effect from simply being a member of a fraternity" (pg. 875)

"Students who are both members of fraternities and use their fraternity connections are 38% more likely to obtain a high paying job" (pg. 876)

"The connection between the use of fraternity help and high paying jobs is so strong that controlling for all other observables [major, GPA, race, other forms of networking, gender, campus activities, leadership positions] does not further reduce the coefficient" (pg. 876)

"The availability of networks may partially explain why admission to certain colleges and universities is considered so desirable" (pg. 879)

"
Value: 
This journal entry is helpful for my topic because it explains how fraternity and sorority members who utilize their greek organization networks are likely to obtain a high paying job upon graduation. Through statistical and descriptive data, both David Marmaros and Bruce Sacredote have shown significant evidence that members of fraternities/sororities who utilize their network and alumnus are most likely to obtain high paying careers, versus other help such as professors, career services, relative, roommate, etc. 





Val

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

Final Research Project - Draft #1


Mark Mizrahi
March 25, 2014
Professor Goeller
Research in Disciplines – Rough Draft #1

Title
Upon entering a higher education institution, undergraduate students are quickly informed of countless extracurricular activities, organizations, campus Greek life opportunities, intramural sports, and clubs that are offered and provided by the college. Many students choose to take advantage of said groups, while others choose academics as their primary focus. Today, thousands of young undergraduate men thrive towards the goal of becoming a fraternity member, going through an average of eight weeks of pledging, where they must prove to their particular fraternal brotherhood that they are worthy of being called a brother for life. Many may wonder, what the true purpose of being affiliated with a fraternity is, whether it is for the alcoholic induced bangers every weekend, social acceptance among peers, or even the pursuit of making more friends in an individual’s college experience. These are all common conceptions of modern fraternity life through the eyes of the public, but the true meaning behind these century old organizations lies deeper than social criticisms. Through an individual’s affiliation into a fraternal brotherhood, an individual has the opportunity to thrive, learn, and develop essential interpersonal skills such as leadership training, social skills, managerial and network building, and self-confidence which can not only influence the person’s life exponentially upon graduation, but can also result in the expansion of the collected social capital of a community or society in future years.
Social capital, by definition is explained as the expected collective or economic benefits derived from the preferential treatment and cooperation between individuals and groups. For social capital to grow and expand, individuals and groups alike must be beneficial to a society, providing opportunities, reasons, and motivations for people to excel in life. As media coverage and word of mouth skepticism of “fraternity hazing” has spread like wildfire in the past decade, many are quick to believe that fraternal and Greek life organizations within college institutions are detrimental to a student’s health, academic priorities, and just downright a “waste of time”. People that are quick to believe the modern misconceptions of fraternities are guilty of a common critical thinking fallacy of poor judgment, allowing the negative media coverage and social ‘bad-mouthing’ to alter their perceptions on certain organizations, without having proper education of the true meaning of said organizations. Hazing has been a closely related term to fraternities and sororities for many years, as the stories of immoral antics of inappropriate behaviors have been forced on pledge members in order to prove that they are right for the organization. These activities have resulted in the death and injury of many undergraduate members of higher education institutions, but it must be clear that these foolish acts of entertainment are not what fraternities are about, and just like any organization or business, there will be corrupted members who can (and will) be detrimental to the organizations overall mission of expanding social capital and individual success. Fraternities are offered to male undergraduate students to help in the development of skills which will benefit their lives through the social, business, and economical aspects of success during their college experience, as well as many years concluding their college degree.
As leaders continue to establish and thrive in college campuses, right around the corner from graduation, the business world is becoming more competitive each and every day. Individuals are competing with each other on many different levels of evaluation for internships and careers from worldwide, multi-billion dollar corporations. Job interviews are becoming substantially important for students pursuing high salary careers, who thrive to build a sufficient resume of collected skills, experiences, and organizations they have been affiliated with. Being associated in a fraternity is not only something that can be put on a resume, but the skills acquired from being a leader in the organization can correlate to many situational decisions related to the workplace, and in effect acting as an advantage in a crucial interview. In a 2008 research journal by Dr. Danny R. Kelley (Ph.D.), he analyzes the leadership development through the fraternity experience as well as the relationship of career success after graduation. Through the use of several quantitative experiments and surveys, Dr. Kelley examined the many leadership skills that are present in the fraternity community. "A fraternity chapter president is provided an opportunity to embrace several leadership roles that are not available to other student leaders, simply based on the uniqueness of fraternities” (Kelley 9). Fraternity leaders are responsible for handling many situations that are original and rarely occurring in the organization, and must rationalize the conflicts in order to create the best possible outcome. Conflicts can often include a dispute between certain members of the organization, budgeting a cash balance that accounts for specific roles of the organization (i.e. Philanthropy chair, Alumni chair, Academics chair, etc.), or even the recruitment difficulties among a chapter. Through collective team-work decisions, organized leadership status, and cognitive critical thinking, fraternity leaders can not only solve these unique situations but learn how to avoid reoccurring conflicts in the future, leading to a successful and positively influenced organization for young undergraduate males.
Pascarella and Terenzini (1991), for example, noted that undergraduate leadership involvement, while having only modest implications for one’s career, did enhance interpersonal and leadership skills that were critical to future job success. Schuh (1987) and Cress et al. (2001) also reported that undergraduate leadership experiences helped students learn leadership skills such as teamwork and communication skills that added to post-graduate career success. (Kelley 9).
The developments of leadership and interpersonal skills that have been adapted by fraternity leaders through their time of control have exemplified sufficient leaders who are confident and ready for the “post-graduate career success”. Through the organizational conflicts and experiences that fraternity leaders have undertaken, it has offered them a unique advantage in the workplace, as well as in the interview process. As members of a fraternity are exposed to these conflicts and experiences throughout their college experience, they also learn to adapt to these interpersonal and leadership skills, contributing to future success for the individual as well as the betterment of their fraternal organization.
            Not to be less acclaimed for, social skills, have been essential factors of success for an individual for as long as mankind has existed. The interaction between individuals does not just consist of the verbal speech of the conversation, but also has much to do with the body language of each party associated in conversation. During interviews, job applicants must have proper posture, speak firmly and consistently, and most importantly must be confident in themselves, if they have any hope of nailing the job. All of these traits derive from the social skills that an individual develops through their teenage and early-adult lives, most commonly known as an individual’s college career. Through the affiliation of fraternities, members have the opportunity to meet not only the undergraduate brothers in the fraternity, but also graduated alumni, other sororities and fraternities on campus, fundraising and philanthropy groups, and fraternity brothers in other chapters around the nation. Taking advantage of this mass web of networking is not only beneficial in the development of social skills, but also in one’s self-confidence.


















Additional Sources:
Greek life impact on students *author is a doctor*
Fraternity Networking
Social networking in Fraternity (job search) *Scholarly article*

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

Literature Review #1 Blog Post (REDO) LEADERSHIP SKILLS

Leadership Development Through the Fraternity Experience and the Relationship to Career Success After Graduation
Danny Kelly begins his research journal with thought of the many definitions of "leadership". He explains how there are hundreds of different explanations and theories for leadership, and it is illogical to narrow down to only a single definition.  The author goes on to speak about college, and how the association with extracurricular activities can aid the student in leadership skills. He uses many research cases throughout his analysis of leadership development within fraternities, and concludes that "students who engaged in college leadership activities had more positive perceptions regarding their abilities to make future career choices as compared to students not involved with leadership activities." Throughout his study, he uses quantifiable evidence to continue his argument, using various procedures, participants, and instruments to his advantage. He concludes at the end of the case study, that the affiliation of an executive committee position in a fraternity (within a students college career) enhanced interpersonal and leadership skills that were critical to future job success.

Author:
Danny R Kelly, Ph.D., Had a DMA from the John Hopkins University, and was a dean at Prairie View A&M University. He was a very successful individual, but recently passed away at the age of 51, in his hometown of Morgantown, West Virginia.

Key Terms:
SLPI - Student Leadership Practices Inventory; measures leadership practices in five areas: Challenging the Process, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Enabling Others to Act, Modeling the Way, and Encouraging the Heart.

LAF - Leadership Acquisitions Form; measures Goal-Setting, Delegation, Motivating Others, Decision-Making, Problem-Solving, Organizational Skills, Meeting Management, Financial Management, Risk-Taking, Presentation Skills, Teamwork, Conflict Management, Social Skills, and Interpersonal Skills.
(Two separate scales: effectiveness ,on a four-point scale from very effective to very ineffective, and usefulness, on a four-point scale from not useful to very useful.)

LPI - Leadership Practices Inventory; developed by Kouzes and Posner in 1987. a tool for businesses to use in creating employee leadership development programs. The instrument is comprised of five functional areas based on behaviors and actions managers reported they exhibit when at their personal best. The five functional areas are Challenging the Process (Challenging), Inspiring a Shared Vision (Inspiring), Enabling Others to Act (Enabling), Modeling the Way (Modeling), and Encouraging the Heart (Encouraging).
(This took has been used in a number of studies for a variety of purposes, some of which are the identification of effective leaders, the educational curriculum necessary to train effective leaders, and the validity of the instrument itself, including its applicability across cultures and gender.)

Quotes:
"McClelland (1985) confirmed that leadership success is affected by the extent to which leaders effectively delegate, motivate, and coordinate subordinates in organizations." (Page 4)

"Many fraternities host alumni associations in cities across the country and, in some cases, internationally. These associations and local fraternity alumni in general have opportunities to assist in the leadership development of their undergraduate members in structured ways. Opportunities could include developing summer intern programs at their places of business, establishing mentoring programs between alumni and undergraduates, assisting undergraduates in career searches, and hosting networking receptions to connect undergraduates with fraternity alumni who work in fields that the students are pursuing after graduation." (Page 10)

"The aim of this study was to evaluate the leadership impact that service as a fraternity chapter president has on students’ self- perceived leadership development. More specifically, this study addressed the self- perceived leadership impact the fraternity experience has on students’ careers." (Page 1)

"A study by Schuh (1983) concluded that students who engaged in college leadership activities had more positive perceptions regarding their abilities to make future career choices as compared to students not involved with leadership activities. Additionally, fraternity/sorority leadership roles have been positively related to personal growth opportunities and leadership training (Astin, 1991, 1996; Winston & Massaro, 1987)" (Page 2)

"The respondents in this study indicated they perceived having served as a fraternity chapter
president did have a positive impact on their leadership skills. While there are many
opportunities for undergraduate students to serve in co-curricular leadership roles, serving as a
fraternity chapter president can provide unique leadership benefits that are not available to other
student leaders." (Page 9)

"A fraternity chapter president is provided an opportunity to embrace several leadership roles that are not available to other student leaders, simply based on the uniqueness of fraternities." (Page 9)

"The results [Table 1] of the study showed that respondents perceived having served as a fraternity chapter president did have a positive impact on their leadership skills." (Page 5)

"In addition, there is an immediate access to the membership. In some cases, this allows for more interaction with members and officers of the organization and opportunities to impact the development of members in their living environments, which is uncommon in other student organizations." (Page 9)

"It is common for a fraternity president to be responsible for the oversight and management of hundreds of thousands of dollars." (Page 9)

Work Cited:
Kelly, Danny R., Ph.D. "Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors." LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE FRATERNITY EXPERIENCE AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO CAREER SUCCESS AFTER GRADUATION 1.3 (2008): n. pag. Google Scholar. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. <http://www.afa1976.org/Portals/0/documents/Oracle/Oracle_vol3_iss1%20Kelley.pdf>;.

Value:
This excerpt from the Oracle Research Journal will be very beneficial in my analytic response as to how the affiliation of a fraternity influences success after graduation, and as a result, benefiting the social capital of a community/society. I will continue to analyze this source because Kelly uses a case study that can help with my analytic paper. He uses quantifiable data that can be concrete evidence in supporting my topic.

Monday, March 10, 2014

Research Blog #4: Research Proposal

Mark Mizrahi
Michael Goeller
Research in Disciplines
01:355:201
Research Proposal Assignment
In today’s society, undergraduate students attending higher education institutions throughout America are thriving more and more each day towards their goal of success. Students work hard throughout college, studying extensively and broadening their knowledge of their area of study in hopes of one day finding a career and making money. Even though academics are a very important factor in being successful, there are many others to take into account as well, including leadership skills, social and team-building skills, networking, and time management. All of these skills are essential in becoming a successful leader or worker, adding towards the collective social capital of a community, but these skills cannot always be found in the academics sector of college. With hundreds of organizations available to college students, Greek life has shown to positively influence students towards their goals of success, teaching students the essential life skills which will help them, as well as positively influencing the social capital of society. Even though fraternities and sororities have been marked with common misconceptions like hazing, excessive drinking, and substance abuse through the media, it is rarely the case. Greek organizations are put on the college campus to benefit students, offering community service as well as fundraising and philanthropy events. These events collaboratively add to the social capital of the community, raising money for the less fortunate and bringing a better sense of reality to many individuals.

Throughout my analytic research paper, I want to work on the question of: Does being affiliated with a Greek organization (fraternity or sorority) in college influence the monetary and social success for an individual as well as positively influencing the social capital of the community? I believe this question can be viewed through many angles, coming from people who are associated with Greek organizations as well as people who are not. It is a controversial topic because many people do believe that fraternities and sororities do not benefit students in college, only adding to the partying area of college, while others believe that being affiliated in such Greek organizations are beneficial for students in college. I will also speak about the professional fraternities which are offered on college campuses around the United States, whose primary purpose is to benefit the individual affiliated in the organization. They help on resume building, finding internships and careers, as well as creating a strong network of students to academically support the affiliated students.The topic of social capital being positively affected through the affiliation of people in Greek organizations is broad, but I feel as if I can narrow down the reasons as to why fraternities and sororities do positively influence social capital.

Social capital, by definition, is the expected collective or economic benefits derived from the preferential treatment and cooperation between individuals and groups. Through social science, a core idea has been instituted that social networks have value, and can increase the productivity of individuals and groups alike. Like many other organizations, fraternities and sororities in America are for the betterment of the educational institution and the individual at hand, aiding the community through fundraising, community service, academic excellence, social networking, and many other aspects of self-betterment. The theory of increasing social capital and individual success through the affiliation of a Greek organization is controversial, because it is a very possible to be successful without being in a fraternity or sorority. What I am trying to explain in my analytic essay is that with the skills and experience acquired through said organizations, there is more of a possibility of learning essential life skills,  resulting in a greater chance of success out of college.
Research is still at its beginning stage for my analytical paper, but I am slowly coming across news reports and scholarly articles which respond to whether Greek organizations aid in the path to success for students and communities. I also have found articles talking about common misconceptions of fraternities and sororities that I would like to discuss in order to clear the air on the rarely occurring incidents of Greek Organizations. Things like hazing and excessive drinking do happen in some Greek organizations, it is a stereotype that will stay with fraternities and sororities for a lifetime. But it must be understood that not all Greek organizations participate in these activities, instead focusing on the primary goal of bettering the community, the educational institution, and the organization itself. Lastly, as a source of information for my analytical essay I would like to use an interview with a successful alumni of my fraternity. I believe this would help my discussion and argument through the first-hand experience of a college graduate who has been affiliated with a Greek organization. With time closing in quickly, I feel as if I should continue to search for more scholarly articles relating to my topic of social capital and successful individuals through the influence of Greek organizations.

















Work Cited
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., and Laura T. Hamilton. Paying for the Party: How College Maintains Inequality. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2013. Print.
Kelly, Danny R., Ph.D. "Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors." LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE FRATERNITY EXPERIENCE AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO CAREER SUCCESS AFTER GRADUATION 1.3 (2008): n. pag. Google Scholar. Web. 10 Mar. 2014. <http://www.afa1976.org/Portals/0/documents/Oracle/Oracle_vol3_iss1%20Kelley.pdf>.
Pike, Gary R. "Research in Higher Education." The Influence of Fraternity or Sorority Membership on Students' College Experience and Cognitive Development 41.1 (2000): n. pag. Google Scholar. Web. 4 Mar. 2014.
Poupard, Lary. "Joining a Fraternity or Sorority Can Improve Your Chances for Being Hired And/or Advanced at Work." Yahoo Contributor Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.
Putnam, Robert. "Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital." Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. National Endowment for Democracy, n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

Robison, Lindon J., and Marcelo E. Siles. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ORGANIZATIONS.Http://purl.umn.edu/11537. N.p., 1998. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.

Research Blog #5

Work Cited
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., and Laura T. Hamilton. Paying for the Party: How College Maintains Inequality. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2013. Print.

Kelly, Danny R., Ph.D. "Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity Advisors." LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE FRATERNITY EXPERIENCE AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO CAREER SUCCESS AFTER GRADUATION 1.3 (2008): n. pag. Google Scholar. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.  <http://www.afa1976.org/Portals/0/documents/Oracle/Oracle_vol3_iss1%20Kelley.pdf>

Pike, Gary R. "Research in Higher Education." The Influence of Fraternity or Sorority Membership on Students' College Experience and Cognitive Development 41.1 (2000): n. pag. Google Scholar. Web. 4 Mar. 2014.

Poupard, Lary. "Joining a Fraternity or Sorority Can Improve Your Chances for Being Hired And/or Advanced at Work." Yahoo Contributor Network. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

Putnam, Robert. "Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital." Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. National Endowment for Democracy, n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

Robison, Lindon J., and Marcelo E. Siles. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ORGANIZATIONS.Http://purl.umn.edu/11537. N.p., 1998. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.

Liturature Review Blog #3 SOCIAL CAPITAL

Social Capital and Organizations
This scholarly source was written in 1998 with the cooperative work of Lindon Robison and Marcelo Siles. They discuss how through the formation and association of organizations, social capital is formed. They first define what an organization consists of, and how they are formed, and then go on in explaining how social capital is achieved through the interconnection between members with similar traits and talents. They explain that if the individuals have commonalities, they are more likely to get along, and as a result, create a positive social capital for the organization and community. Another point that I found to be very interesting in the influence of social capital is the membership requirements of an organization. An organizations membership requirements determines the size and strength of  relationships among its members, influencing the outcome of social capital in the end result. With no membership requirements, there is much higher of a chance of unaffiliated members who will not contribute to the good of the organization.

Citation:
Robison, Lindon J., and Marcelo E. Siles. Social Capital and
           Organizations.Http://purl.umn.edu/11537. N.p., 1998. web. 10 Mar. 2014

Authors:
Lindon J Robison, & Marcelo E Siles are both professors in the Department of Agricultural Economics at Michigan State University, and wrote this cooperative work on the relation between organizations and social capital in 1998. These authors have specialized in articles having to do with social capital, including their work of "The relative importance of selfishness and social capital motives" as well as "Social capital and the distribution of household income in the United States".

Key Terms: 
Economic Needs - This category includes the need for goods and services that provide the means for survival and physical enjoyment. In developed economies, economic needs are met by exchanging labor, effort, and other owned resources for income that is used to buy food, shelter, transportation services, entertainment, and other objects that provide physical satisfaction.

Validation Needs - Men and women have the need to believe they matter. The need to matter is satisfied through various mechanisms of validation.  Means of validation are established in social interactions and must generally be inter-personally valued.  Sometimes we seek validation by the work we do, the awards we earn, the positions we hold, our physical appearance, status symbols owned, the people with whom we associate, and the service we have performed. 

Social Needs - Men and women are social beings whose emotional and physical health requires social interaction and a sense of belonging. One form of punishment

Information Needs - We all have the need for information that helps us understand our environment. 
Sometimes this information connects consequences with their causes. Information that connects
consequences with their causes is of the form if “A” and then “B” and is required for informed decision
making

Quotes:
"An organization’s membership requirements will determine the size and strength of relationships
among its members. Individuals have a limited supply of social energy that can be used to invest
(disinvest) in social capital." (Page 2)

"All organizations exist to meet the needs of
its members or non-members affected by the organization’s activities. An organization’s purpose is likely
suggested by its membership requirements." (Page 5)

"Most organizations strive to meet all four needs though they may vary widely in their emphasis on
any particular need. For example, the local Rotary Club meets together socially over lunch. Each lunch
meeting, however, includes a guest speaker to meet an informational need. One purpose of the Rotary Club
is to provide services organized at the weekly meetings and usually performed on weekends. The Club’s
service projects provide a validation service for its members without which the Club would likely cease to
exist. Finally, during some social, information sharing, and service/validation activities, members are
sometimes arranging a business deal. Thus, the local Rotary Club helps its members meet all four needs." (Page 6)

Value: 
I feel as if this scholarly article will be very beneficial in talking about how fraternity and sorority organizations in college influence the social capital of the community. They discuss how membership requirements are very important in creating social capital within the organization, and that is something very important in fraternities and sororities. The bond of brothers and sisters through the pledge process creates an interconnected group of individuals with similar talents and traits, which in result will create the formation of events, fundraising, and activities that can benefit the community and the overall social capital. The article also explains the four needs of an organization, all of which help in creating positively influenced social capital.